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Oakey Contamination Class Action – Landholder Claims

Australian Outback | Shine Lawyers

Shine Lawyers has launched a class action against the Department of Defence for exposing thousands of residents in the Queensland town of Oakey to PFC contamination. Firefighting chemicals used at the Army Aviation Centre from 1970-2005 have leached into the surrounding soil and contaminated groundwater in the local area, affecting more than 4,000 Oakey residents. Australia's largest litigation funders, IMF Bentham, are to fund the case.

Property and business owner/operator claims

Shine Lawyers' Class Action department has brought the action on behalf of  over 450 members of the Oakey community who have or have had residential and commercial property in the contaminated area. The contamination has negatively impacted both business and land values, leaving many residents out of pocket.

Shine Lawyers will be seeking compensation for economic loss from residential, agricultural and business land as a result of the contamination (known as landholder claims). If you have owned land in the area being investigated by the Department of Defence, you may be eligible to join the lawsuit.

It is worth noting that the scope of this action does not cover personal injury claims from the groundwater contamination.

Contamination of Oakey groundwater

The residue left by the firefighting foam used on the base contains compounds known as PFCs. These are particularly difficult to break down naturally, and are incredibly persistent in water, plant, animal and human systems.

These chemicals are spreading in goundwater far beyond the Oakey Army base, and are having devastating impacts on land prices in and around the Oakey region.

Click here to see if you are part of the affected areas.

Joining the class action

If you think that your property or business has been affected by the contamination in Oakey, you may have a claim.

Follow the link below to register for the class action:

Register Here

Who is Shine Lawyers' Class Action team?

Shine Lawyers' Class Action team includes some of the firm’s most experienced partners, associates, solicitors and support staff, including researchers, law clerks and paralegals. The team handling the Oakey Contamination Class Action includes:

Nikki Stever
Nikki Stever
Tristan Gaven
Tristan Gaven


Julia Younger
Julia Younger

This case would be run on a No Win No Fee basis, such that participants will only pay fees if the claims are successful.


See also:

Our offer to you

  • Obligation-free consultation to assess your case confidentially

  • Claim assessment process where we will explain all of the options available to you

  • We can come to you - if you can't make it into the office we're more than happy to come to you

  • No Win No Fee arrangement

Common questions about Oakey Contamination Class Action – Landholder Claims

From 1970 to 2005, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) regularly conducted firefighting drills at the Oakey Army Aviation Centre (the “Oakey Army base”) using a type of firefighting foam.

The ADF has advised that chemicals in the foam (two in particular) have penetrated soil on the base and contaminated the groundwater.

Contaminated groundwater has been detected several kilometres to the west and southwest of the base.

The ADF has advised local residents not to drink their bore water or creek water.


Various studies have suggested that exposure to some of the chemicals involved has the potential for adverse health impacts in humans.

A scientific panel in the US concluded that there was a probable link between exposure to one of the chemicals and kidney and testicular cancer, thyroid disease, pregnancy-induced hypertension, ulcerative colitis and hypercholesterolemia. Some research suggests broader health concerns.


It is clear that the chemicals are spreading in groundwater far beyond the Oakey Army base.

Evidence suggests that many bores in the area may be dangerously contaminated for the indefinite future and there is a possibility of wider impacts.

There is some concern as to whether contaminated bore water should be used to water crops or livestock. The ADF has indicated that there is some uncertainty as to whether the bore water can safely be used for bathing.

Shine Lawyers’ research has found that the UK Public Health authorities advise that skin or eye exposure to the relevant chemicals may cause irritation.

Land Values

All the foregoing have the ability to affect land prices in and around Oakey. Anecdotal evidence is that public perceptions and land prices may have already taken a tumble in the wake of the ADF’s public announcements.

The two chemicals of concern are PFOS (Perfluorooctane Sulfonate) and PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic Acid, also known as C8).

These are man-made chemicals that were first used to make non-stick frying pans in the 1950s. The chemicals were later used in a range of products including Scotchgard Sprays, carpet treatment, Gortex clothing and firefighting foams.

PFOS and PFOA are just two members of a group of chemicals known as PFCs (Perfluorinated chemicals).

These chemicals do not readily break down in the environment and are incredibly persistent in water, plant, animal and human systems.

The chemicals are ingested by humans through drinking or eating (and possibly inhaling) substances that contain them. The chemicals are not easily eliminated from the body and can accumulate. This means that even small amounts of daily exposure can lead to relatively high concentrations over a lifetime. The chemicals have a half-life in the human body of around 4 to 9 years and accumulate primarily in the blood, kidneys and liver.

Studies have also revealed that the chemicals can increase through the food chain, with human exposure being shown to have occurred following ingestion of contaminated crops and livestock.

Various studies have suggested a potential for adverse health impacts in humans.

Following a class action in the US between DuPont (a manufacturer of Teflon which contains PFOA) and residents in the vicinity of a major contamination incident, a scientific panel concluded that there was a probable link between PFOA exposure and kidney and testicular cancer, thyroid disease, pregnancy-induced hypertension, ulcerative colitis and hypercholesterolemia.

There have also been adverse health effects observed in laboratory animals following deliberate exposure to toxic concentrations of PFOS and PFOA, including:

  • Liver, thyroid and pancreatic cancer;
  • Changes in liver size, weight loss and increased allergic response in rats;
  • Skin irritation and conjunctivitis in rabbits.

The effects of PFOS/PFOA exposure on developing children is not well understood.

The ADF has indicated that they will be undertaking further human health risk assessments.

The ADF has indicated that the levels of PFOS present in Oakey’s groundwater range from 0.2ug/L to 500ug/L and levels of PFOA range from 0.4ug/L to 500ug/L. These ranges significantly exceed the short-term health advisory limits published by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2012 (normally intended to protect for one or ten days of exposure) which are 0.2ug/L for PFOS and 0.4ug/L for PFOA.

We note however that more recent scientific research from Europe indicates that even current drinking water limits appear not to be strict enough to protect against certain health effects of exposure to PFCs and therefore need to be revised (potentially by tightening by several hundred fold).

The ADF has indicated that a number of privately owned bores off-base have been tested.

The ADF says these bores were sampled because:

  1. they were registered with the Department of Natural Resources and Mines;
  2. the depth was consistent with the bores sampled on-base; and
  3. their location was in-line with the groundwater flow direction.

Some water samples were also collected from Oakey Creek.

Yes. We are advised that an evaluation of the impact and spread of the PFOS/PFOA contamination will require testing of additional bores in the area, including any unregistered bores.

This will take place because:

  • not all bores within the area sampled by Defence will record the same concentration of contaminants; and
  • only bores at a certain depth were tested. This does not account for potential aquifer interconnectivity nor the presence of deeper aquifers.

Ongoing monitoring of bores at regular intervals will be necessary due to the mobility of the contaminant plume and because concentrations may alter with seasons and pumping rates.

Other PFC contaminants can break down over time to form PFOS or PFOA. Therefore, the ADF should test for these contaminants as well as additional chemicals known to be associated with aircraft activities, such as hydrocarbons and chemicals found in degreasing agents.

A blood test can determine whether you’ve been exposed to these chemicals and the government is currently finalising a national blood testing programme for affected communities, including Oakey.

In the meantime, the Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology at Downs Rural Medical, 5 Cherry Street, Oakey 4401, can conduct these tests for you at no cost, with the bill passed on to Department of Defence.

The ADF has advised residents to avoid drinking water that may contain these chemicals.

Boiling does not remove PFCs from water. Furthermore, the effectiveness of common home water treatment filters at removing PFCs has not yet been established.

Residents may wish to use bottled water for drinking, cooking and brushing teeth etc.

The health implications of using water contaminated with PFOS and PFOA for the purpose of bathing or showering is not yet understood.

The ADF has indicated that it will investigate the potential risks of watering livestock and irrigating crops with contaminated bore water. It has indicated that further advice would be provided should potential risks be identified.

It is not yet known what effect the presence of PFCs could have on producers.

Generally speaking, producers are required under the Australian Consumer Law to ensure that product they produce is safe for human consumption. Processors and retailers might even be found to be negligent in certain circumstances.

If it is possible, you may wish to use alternative water supplies to limit spreading the contamination further into the food chain.

At this stage there is uncertainty as to what implications the groundwater contamination will have on contaminated land considerations, any reduction in the value of the land and development or planning approvals, including delays in such applications.

Although you don’t have to allow the ADF to enter your land, we think it should be given the opportunity to follow through with its stated intentions to do the right thing by Oakey residents.

The ADF has indicated a willingness to work with landholders to conduct a proper investigation into the issues.

Testing of the bores will allow for a more accurate assessment of the impacts. Currently there is insufficient data to determine how far the chemicals have travelled from the base and whether the contamination extends to deeper aquifers and land further afield.

You may wish to consider whether you require certain conditions in relation to testing proposed for your bores.

If you are unsure what conditions could be relevant to your situation, you may wish to contact Shine Lawyers’ Special Counsel Peter Shannon or Senior Solicitor Rory Ross on (07) 4662 5977.

If you are concerned about potential impacts to your bore and have not been contacted by the ADF, you may choose to contact them to discuss arranging testing.

The ADF has set up the following website, contact email and telephone number for this purpose:

Website: www.defence.gov.au/id/oakey
Email: defence.oakey.anz@aecom.com
Phone: 1800 136 129 (Monday to Friday, 8:30am to 5:00pm)

Even with the best of intentions, large organisations can be slow to act.

There are legal time limitations now running which could impact on or even wipe out your rights.

In early August 2016, the ADF publicly announced the potential impacts on human health, groundwater and land values and the time limits for your rights in respect of these issues are now running.

There is nothing to be gained by waiting patiently for the ADF to knock on your door or being drawn into lengthy discussions with them. In fact, such delay could cost you your rights. You need to be proactive and that’s where Shine Lawyers can assist.

If you think that your property or business have been affected by the contamination in Oakey, you may have a claim. Please visit the IMF Bentham website to register for the proposed class action against the Department of Defence.

If there have been other impacts on your life, then you may still be entitled to compensation. Shine Lawyers is in contact with leading health, groundwater and environmental experts to ensure they can get things moving on behalf of those they represent.

The Shine Lawyers energy law team has expertise in negotiating with large organisations. The team is experienced in groundwater and bore compensation issues and assisting landholders when the value of their property has been reduced due to impacts on land.

The Shine Lawyers energy law team includes some of the firm’s most experienced special counsel, solicitors and support staff, including researchers, law clerks and paralegals.

Your team includes:

For more information, please contact the energy law team.

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